Survival of Aporrectodea caliginosa and its effects on nutrient availability in biosolids amended soilApplied Soil Ecology

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Authors
Jacob P. McDaniel, Mary E. Stromberger, Kenneth A. Barbarick, Whitney Cranshaw
Year
2013
DOI
10.1016/j.apsoil.2013.04.010
Subject
Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous) / Soil Science / Ecology

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Text

Applied Soil Ecology 71 (2013) 1– 6

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Applied Soil Ecology journa l h om epage: www.elsev ier .com

Surviva ts availab

Jacob P. M bar a Department o , CO 80 b Department o e Univ

United States a r t i c

Article history:

Received 4 Feb

Received in re

Accepted 28 A

Keywords:

Earthworm

Soil nitrogen availability

Colorado

Organic matter ction raine tion to su out b microbial biomass and soil nutrient availability. A factorial design with three main effects of A. caliginosa, biosolids addition, and time was used. Data was collected through destructively sampling at one, two, four, eight, and twelve weeks. During the 12-week study, 97.5% of the worms in the soil survived, and the survival of the earthworms was not significantly affected by the addition of biosolids. The addition of biosolids, however, did significantly reduce the gain in mass of the earthworms (8% mass gain compared 1. Introdu

The effe

Darwin (18 associated t quality (Do 1998). This nutrient av

N in the so their effects ganizing so 1993; Schr 1978, 1985 and Foster,

Currentl agricultural tillage (NT) ∗ Correspon

E-mail add 0929-1393/$ – http://dx.doi.oto 18% in soil without biosolids). The presence of A. caliginosa significantly increased soil NH4-N, and

NO3-N concentrations by 31% and 4%, respectively, which was less than the six fold increases in both soil

NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations supplied from biosolids. Microbial biomass carbon was not affected by A. caliginosa, but microbial biomass N was affected by an earthworm × biosolids interaction at week 1 and 12. We concluded that A. caliginosa can survive in a low-organic matter Colorado soil under optimal moisture content and that once established, A. caliginosa can provide modest increases in inorganic N availability to crops Colorado agroecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ction cts of earthworms on soil were first documented by 86), and for many years, farmers and soil scientist have he presence of earthworms as an indication of good soil ran and Safley, 1997; Roming et al., 1996; Yeates et al., is namely due to the effects of earthworms on plant ailability, particularly on increasing the availability of il. Earthworms can also improve soil quality through on soil physical properties, including mixing and reoril (Darwin, 1886; Martin and Marinissen, 1993; Oades, ader and Zhang, 1997), creating macropores (Tisdall, ), and changing and improving water and gas flow (Lee 1991). y there are few earthworms present in production fields in eastern Colorado, but the transition to nopractices could improve conditions for earthworms by ding author. Tel.: +1 970 491 0636; fax: +1 970 491 5676. ress: Jacob.McDaniel@ColoState.edu (J.P. McDaniel). reducing physical disturbance, increasing water holding capacity, and/or increasing organic matter content (Edwards and Lofty, 1982;

House and Parmelee, 1985; VandenBygaart et al., 1999). Besides the conversion from conventional tillage to no-tillage, another way to increase the soil organic matter would be the addition of an organic amendment such as manure or biosolids. The addition of organic matter has been shown to increase earthworm populations in irrigated, forage agroecosystems in Colorado (Hurisso et al., 2011).

As earthworms expand into agricultural fields in Colorado, it will become important to understand the effect of earthworms on soil fertility to make correct nutrient management decisions. Earthworms can dramatically affect the concentration of plant available

N through the mineralization of soil organic matter and excretion of nitrogenous wastes (Edwards and Lofty, 1977). This process is important when the fertility of the soil is dependent on the mineralization of organic materials such as biosolids or manure (Lubbers et al., 2011). Earthworms aid not only by direct mineralization of organic matter but also by stimulating microbial activity in soil (Curry and Schmidt, 2007). Earthworms primarily affect N availability by increasing the concentration of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) in the soil due to digestion and excretions of wastes, as see front matter © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. rg/10.1016/j.apsoil.2013.04.010l of Aporrectodea caliginosa and its effec ility in biosolids amended soil cDaniela,∗, Mary E. Strombergera, Kenneth A. Bar f Soil and Crop Sciences, 1170 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins f Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, 1177 Campus Delivery, Colorado Stat l e i n f o ruary 2013 vised form 25 April 2013 pril 2013 a b s t r a c t

Few earthworms are present in produ earthworm populations may be const ducted a 12-week laboratory incuba earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) content), supplemented with or with/ locate /apsoi l on nutrient icka, Whitney Cranshawb 523-1170, United States ersity, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1177, agricultural fields in the semi-arid plains of Colorado, where d by limited water and/or organic matter resources. We constudy to determine the potential of a non-native endogeic rvive in a low-organic matter Colorado soil (1.4% organic C iosolids, and to determine the effects of A. caliginosa on soil 2 J.P. McDaniel et al. / Applied Soil Ecology 71 (2013) 1– 6 well as their release of mucus (Whalen et al., 2000). The NH4-N may be oxidized to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by nitrifying bacteria, which are stimulated by earthworm burrowing activities (Parkin and Berry, 1999) that increase the oxygen concentration deeper in the soil pro

Biosolid (for a review area of rese with repeat

Outside of heavy meta tions (Protz the potentia worm popu for toxicity et al., 2008; anecic or e andrei, resp cal burrows into the so and feed on effect on nu surface-app