Spatial heterogeneity of soil quality around mature oil palms receiving mineral fertilizationEuropean Journal of Soil Biology

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Authors
M.P. Carron, Q. Auriac, D. Snoeck, C. Villenave, E. Blanchart, F. Ribeyre, R. Marichal, M. Darminto, J.P. Caliman
Year
2015
DOI
10.1016/j.ejsobi.2014.11.005
Subject
Microbiology / Insect Science / Soil Science

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Text

nd a, * a, b a c d e

Cirad, UPR Systemes de perennes, F-34398 Montpellie b SupAgro-Irc, Agropolis Avenue, F-34093 Montpellier, F c Elisol-Environnement, place Viala, F-34060 Montpellie d Ird, UMR Eco&Sols, F-34060 Montpellier, France e Cirad, UPR Bioagresseurs, F-34398 Montpellier, France f Smart-RI, P.O. Box 1340, 28000 Pekanbaru, Riau, Indon a r t i c l e i n f o ion). Its biodiversity ossible relationships . All rights reserved. response to new constraints resulting from global change, i.e. environmental concerns and in particular an increase in the cost of mineral fertilizers, the principles and criteria for the sustainability r Sustainable Palm encouraged proeir practices [2e4]. cept of soil quality quality is related to its role as life-support in general, in plant development in particular. Most authors agreed that physical, chemical and biological parameters are required to evaluate it and are looking for a multiparametric index ([6,7]). In the same line of thought, the density of soil macrofauna has been shown to be significantly correlated with soil services in deforested Amazonia [8].* Corresponding author. Cirad, UPR Syst emes de perennes, TA B-34/02, Avenue

Agropolis, F-34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

European Journal ww

European Journal of Soil Biology 66 (2015) 24e31E-mail address: marc-philippe.carron@cirad.fr (M.P. Carron).mental importance is well known, especially in East Asia. In in agro-ecosystem is the subject of controversy [5]. For us, soilthe palm had the highest soil nutrient content (P, K, Ca, Mg, Corg CEC, base saturat was average but it contained the highest density of earthworms and nematofauna. P between chemicals and biological groups in the food web are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS 1. Introduction

The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is cultivated in an area totalling 17 million ha [1]; its economic, social, and environof oil palm were laid down by the Roundtable fo

Oil (RSPO e http://www.rspo.org) in 2007 and ducers to assess the environmental impacts of th

Soil quality was one of the main targets. The conalso reflected in the density of the functional groups, mainly soil engineers, detritivores and predators for macrofauna and bacterial feeders, and phytoparasites for nematofauna. The weeded circular zone aroundArticle history:

Received 21 August 2014

Received in revised form 4 November 2014

Accepted 10 November 2014

Available online 11 November 2014

Keywords:

Soil quality

Soil macrofauna

Soil nematofauna

Elaeis guineensishttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2014.11.005 1164-5563/© 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights resr, France rance r, France esia a b s t r a c t

The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is grown on a total area of 16 million ha; but data on soil quality in mature oil palm plantations are fragmentary and data concerning biota are almost nonexistent. Consequently, no well-tested sampling method is available for soil diagnoses. We studied the spatial heterogeneity of the soil around the palm by measuring comprehensive soil quality in a 24-yearold oil palm plantation. Soil quality and litter were assessed in five zones with different plant cover, and different applications of herbicide or fertilizer. Physical-chemical characteristics, macrofauna, and nematofauna were analysed. A sampling method was developed and adapted to the way the cultivation practices are implemented: sampling by zone and weighting the plot mean by the respective area of each zone. The total density of macrofauna in the litter and in the 0e15 cm soil layer followed a gradient from the harvest pathway (29 ind m2) to the windrow (1003 ind m2). Ants (13e237 ind m2), earthworms (11e120 ind m2), Dermaptera (0e35 ind m2), Coleoptera (3e24 ind m2) and Chilopoda (0 e43 ind m2) were the main taxa. The termite population was very poor (3e4 ind m2). The density of nematofauna was also heterogeneous (268e805 ind 100 g1 of soil). Heterogeneity between zones wasR. Marichal , M. Darminto a  M.P. Carron , Q. Auriac , D. Snoeck , C. Villenave , E. Blanchart , F. Ribeyre , a f, J.P. Caliman a, fOriginal article

Spatial heterogeneity of soil quality arou mineral fertilization journal homepage: http: / /werved.mature oil palms receiving of Soil Biology .e lsevier .com/locate/ejsobi

The chemical fertility in a mature plantation is indirectly assessed by leaf diagnosis, which is used for the management of chemical inputs [9]. The abiotic soil conditions are only assessed when the plantations are being established to determine liming rates and the early fertilization requirements of the young palms (until leaf diagnosis becomes possible). Afterwards, the quality of soils is no longer an issue unless problems of erosion or compaction arise [10]. Currently, only fragmentary data are available on soil quality in a mature oil palm plot or on the impacts of fertilization, and practically no data at all is available on soil biota. Consequently, no well-tested sampling method is available, that is sensitive to spatial heterogeneity in a perennial plantation.

To respect the framework of ecological intensification, the assessment and management of soil quality necessarily include soil biota, particularly with respect to fertility as an ecosystem service [11e13]. This assessment thus requires the measurement of soil 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Study site

The present study was conducted in the province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia (0 550 32.8200 N; 101 110 37.2000 E).

This province produces more raw palm oil than any other in the

Indonesian archipelago. The study plots are located in an industrial plantation belonging to PT-Smart (Golden Agri-Resources). The region has a humid equatorial climate with approximately 2600 mm of well-distributed rainfall throughout the year, but including two drier seasons (February and June/July, inwhichmean monthly precipitation is 130 mm). Sampling was performed in May 2012 at the end of the wet season, which is a favourable period for the study of macrofauna [27]. The plantation was established 24