Quantitative analysis of time-course development of motion sickness caused by in-vehicle video watchingDisplays

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Authors
Naoki Isu, Takuya Hasegawa, Ichiro Takeuchi, Akihiro Morimoto
Year
2014
DOI
10.1016/j.displa.2014.01.003
Subject
Electrical and Electronic Engineering / Hardware and Architecture / Human-Computer Interaction

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Article history:

Received 4 June 2012

Received in revised form 21 March 2013

Accepted 19 January 2014

Available online 28 January 2014

Keywords:

Visual–vestibular sensory conflict

Susceptibility a b s t r a c t be the result of sensory conflict [1], that is, the vestibular system conveys sensory information of body movement, while the visual system conveys stationary information creating the sensation of the body being immobile. hing in a moving ook-readi i [4,5] also on carsickn their experimental studies. It showed that reading still (news text) or watching moving images brought on more carsick than the case that passengers were allowed to see e view.

In order to offer comfortable video-watching in moving vehicles, it has been desired to develop new video systems that can reduce motion sickness. For developing such new video systems, it is essential to establish an experimental protocol that can quantitatively evaluate how motion-sickness is developed during ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 59 231 9458; fax: +81 59 231 9460.

E-mail address: isu@ai.info.mie-u.ac.jp (N. Isu). 1 Present address: DENSO Corporation, 1-1 Showa-cho, Kariya 448-8611, Japan. 2 Present address: Automotive Systems Company, Panasonic Corporation, 4261

Ikonobe-cho, Tsuduki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 225-8520, Japan.

Displays 35 (2014) 90–97

Contents lists availab

Displ .e lAn important issue in the development of in-vehicle video systems is to understand how easily and severely passengers get motion sickness. It is well known that reading books or maps in a moving vehicle brings on and aggravates motion sickness. This is known to naire survey. The study indicated that video watc vehicle caused motion sickness less often than b more often than normal riding. Kato and Kitazak tigated the influence of in-vehicle video displayhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2014.01.003 0141-9382/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.ng, but invesess by images severe xternal1. Introduction

Recent advancement of video-screen technology allows us to watch videos in moving vehicles such as cars, boats, and airplanes.

Watching a video in a moving vehicle is considered to trigger sensory conflict in the same manner as book-reading [2]. Schoettle and Sivak [3] investigated the frequency and the severity of motion sickness experienced from in-vehicle video usage by a question-Statistical analysis

Random-component location-scale model

Incomplete within-subject design

Onboard TVIt has been common and popular to watch videos in moving vehicles. An important issue in developing comfortable in-vehicle video watching systems is to understand how passengers get motion sickness.

With this in mind, the goals of this paper are (1) to introduce an experimental protocol and a statistical analysis procedure for quantitatively evaluating how motion-sickness is developed during car-driving, and (2) to demonstrate their practical usefulness with a working experimental study. In the experimental protocol, motion sickness was induced to subjects by requiring them to watch an in-vehicle video during 15-min driving, and the time-course development of motion sickness was recorded by asking subjects to evaluate their degree of motion sickness every one minute. A main difficulty in analyzing data from these studies is how to incorporate the individual difference in motion-sickness susceptibility. Since susceptibilities are markedly different among subjects, within-subject design experiments are preferred. However, it is practically difficult to conduct complete set of trials because subjects who are not willing to continue experiment (due to heavy motion sickness) should be able to withdraw from the subsequent series of trials in accordance with ethical requirement. To cope with this incomplete data issue, we introduce a statistical data analysis procedure that enables to estimate and impute missing entries in the within-subject design table. Using a working example, we demonstrated that the protocol and the procedure are useful for quantitative assessment of the time-course motion sickness development. We conducted an in-vehicle motion-sickness study with 31 subjects, where the time-course motion sickness developments of video-watching, book-reading, and normal riding conditions were compared. The results indicate that video-watching brings on 2.7 times more severe motion sickness than normal riding, but 25% less severe than book-reading.  2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Quantitative analysis of time-course deve caused by in-vehicle video watching

Naoki Isu a,⇑, Takuya Hasegawa b,1, Ichiro Takeuchi b, a Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima-machiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japa b Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya journal homepage: wwwpment of motion sickness kihiro Morimoto a,2 hi 466-8555, Japan le at ScienceDirect ays sevier .com/locate /d ispla layscar-driving. To assess the severity of sickness in series during an experimental trial, it must be briefly evaluated in an instant at every measuring time. A variety of subjective rating methods [e.g., 4–7] and magnitude estimation methods [8] have been frequently used for that purpose. Short Symptoms Checklist [9] is also adopted for evaluating the severity of symptoms at given intervals (e.g., every 5 min) during stimulus periods. Another estimation method, in which subjects respond with a joystick instead of replying with numerical ratings, has been used for continuous measurement [10]. In this paper, we first introduce an experimental protocol and a statistical analysis procedure for quantitative assessment of time-course motion sickness development. Then we demonstrate with a working experimental study that our new approach is practically useful for understanding how motion-sickness is developed during car-driving.

In the experimental protocol, motion sickness is induced to subjects by requiring them to watch a video via an in-vehicle video display during 15-min driving along a winding road. The timecourse development of motion sickness is recorded by asking subjects to evaluate their degree of motion sickness every one minute of 15-min driving. The degree of motion sickness is subjectively evaluated with 11 grades (0–10) on a rating scale, which is essentially the same as the well-being score introduced by Reason and