Movement of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Adults between Huanglongbing-Infected and Healthy CitrusFlorida Entomologist

About

Authors
Fengnian Wu, Yijing Cen, Xiaoling Deng, Jianchi Chen, Yulu Xia, Guangwen Liang
Year
2015
DOI
10.1653/024.098.0203
Subject
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics / Insect Science

Text

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.

Movement of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Adults between

Huanglongbing-Infected and Healthy Citrus

Author(s): Fengnian Wu, Yijing Cen, Xiaoling Deng, Jianchi Chen, Yulu Xia and Guangwen Liang

Source: Florida Entomologist, 98(2):410-416.

Published By: Florida Entomological Society

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1653/024.098.0203

URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.098.0203

BioOne (www.bioone.org) is a nonprofit, online aggregation of core research in the biological, ecological, and environmental sciences. BioOne provides a sustainable online platform for over 170 journals and books published by nonprofit societies, associations, museums, institutions, and presses.

Your use of this PDF, the BioOne Web site, and all posted and associated content indicates your acceptance of

BioOne’s Terms of Use, available at www.bioone.org/page/terms_of_use.

Usage of BioOne content is strictly limited to personal, educational, and non-commercial use. Commercial inquiries or rights and permissions requests should be directed to the individual publisher as copyright holder. 1Laboratory of Insect Ecology/Citrus Huanglongbing Research Laboratory, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China 2Crop Diseases, Pests and Genetics Research, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, USDA-ARS, Parlier, CA 93648, USA 3Center for Integrated Pest Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA *Corresponding authors; E-mail: cenyj@scau.edu.cn; gwliang@scau.edu.cn 410 2015 — Florida Entomologist — Volume 98, No. 2

Movement of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-infected and healthy citrus

Fengnian Wu1, Yijing Cen1,*, Xiaoling Deng1, Jianchi Chen2, Yulu Xia3, and Guangwen Liang1,*

Abstract

Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the vector of huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease). Preferences of D. citri adults differed for HLB-infected and healthy citrus under different maturity conditions. The presence or absence of young shoots had a significant influence on the choice by D. citri adults between HLB-infected and healthy citrus hosts. When citrus plants had young shoots, infected plants were more attractive than healthy ones to the adults. Also, D. citri adults fed for a longer time on infected plants with young shoots than on their healthy counterparts. In the absence of young shoots, D. citri adults were at first also more attracted to infected mature leaves, but after 38 h they turned to healthy mature leaves. In a multiple choice experiment, infected young shoots and healthy young shoots were the most attractive, followed by shoots with infected mature-yellow leaves and physiologically mature-yellow leaves, and lastly by healthy or infected mature-green leaves. In an experiment to measure the relative attractiveness of yellow, green, and white boards, yellow color boards attracted more adults than green and white boards, indicating that the adults preferred the yellow color. The results suggest that

D. citri adults when first confronted with a choice are more attracted to infected citrus because of the color, but subsequently they move to healthy citrus perhaps because of either the poor nutrition or a feeding barrier in the infected hosts. This behavior appears to facilitate the pathogen’s spread.

Key Words: Asian citrus psyllid; citrus greening disease; preference; infected mature-yellow leaves; physiologically mature-yellow leaves

Resumen

El psílido asiático de los cítricos (PAC), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), es el vector de la enfermedad Huanglongbing (HLB o enverdecimiento de los cítricos). Las preferencias de los adultos de PAC diferían de cítricos infectados con HLB y saludables en diferentes condiciones de madurez. La presencia o ausencia de brotes jóvenes tuvieron una influencia significativa en la selección hecha por los adultos de PAC entre los hospederos cítricos infectados por HLB y los saludables. Cuando las plantas de cítricos tenian brotes jóvenes, las plantas infectadas fueron más atractivos que los sanos a los adultos. También los adultos PAC se alimentaron por más tiempo en las plantas infectadas con brotes jóvenes que en sus homólogos sanos. En la ausencia de brotes jóvenes, los adultos

PAC fueron al principio más atraídos a las hojas maduras infectadas, pero después de 38 horas se dirigieron a las hojas maduras sanas.

En un experimento de selección múltiple, los brotes jóvenes infectados y brotes jóvenes sanos fueron los más atractivos, seguido de brotes con hojas infectadas maduras y las hojas amarillas fisiológicamente maduras de color amarillo, y por último por las hojas verde-maduro sanas o infectadas. En un experimento para medir el atractivo relativo de las tarjetas amarillas, verdes y blancas, las tarjetas de color amarillo atrajeron a más adultos que las tarjetas verdes y blancas, lo que indica que los adultos prefieren el color amarillo. Los resultados sugieren que los adultos PAC cuando primero se enfrentan a una selección son más atraídas a los cítricos infectados por el color, pero luego se trasladan a los cítricos saludable quizás ya sea por mala nutrición o una barrera de alimentación en los hospederos infectados. Este comportamiento parece facilitar la propagación del patógeno.

Palabras Clave: Diaphorina citri; enverdecimiento de los cítricos; preferencia; hojas maduras de color amarillo infectadas; hojas fisiológicamente maduras-amarillas

Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease, greening disease), which is associated with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanus’ (Lam), is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide (Garnier et al. 1984; Aubert 1987; Jagoueix et al. 1997; Teixeira et al. 2005; Bové 2006). It affects phloem of the host and causes mottledyellow leaves that can result in rapid tree decline and ultimately in death (Halbert & Manjunath 2004). Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri