Received 31 January 2014
Received in revised form 6 August 2014
Accepted 10 October 2014
Available online 27 October 2014
Life Cycle Assessment
Heavy metro train
GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions within the European Union.
Around 20% of these emissions are generated by road transportation, including both private/public and passenger/freight vehicles (Witik et al., 2011). Globally, light-duty vehicles account for
GHG emissions missioned by the ent (2004), lightghly 700million to atterns forecast a nd that will have ge and urban air quality (Hawkins at al., 2012).
In light of these considerations, environmental analyses and eco-design solutions have been applied in depth to all the LifeCycle (LC) stages of automotive vehicles and components (Berzi et al., 2013; Cappelli et al., 2007; Mayyas et al., 2012). In this context, many Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) (Chanaron, 2007;
Finnveden et al., 2009; ISO 14040, 2006; ISO 14044, 2006) of both conventional (Finkbeiner et al., 2006; Schmidt et al., 2004;
Spielmann and Althaus, 2006)) and innovative (Alves et al., 2010; * Corresponding author. DIEF, Department of Industrial Engineering of Florence,
Via di S. Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy. Tel./fax: þ39 055 4796488.
Contents lists availab
Journal of Clean .e ls
Journal of Cleaner Production 87 (2015) 787e799E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (F. Del Pero).1. Introduction
Our global society is strongly dependent on transportation with development trends indicating a substantial growth in this sector over the coming decades (Hawkins at al., 2012). The transportation industry (including all the transport modes, from air to surface traffic) is currently the second largest contributor to anthropogenic approximately 10% of total energy use and (Solomon et al., 2007). According to a study com
World Business Council for Sustainable Developm duty vehicles ownership could increase from rou 2 billion over the period 2000e2050. These p dramatic increase in gasoline and diesel dema implications on energy security, climate chanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.023 0959-6526/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to the ever-growing demand for transport service. Development trends for the following years project substantial increase in this sector.
To date, environmental effects caused by railway transport services have been rarely inspected systematically and existing studies focus on single typologies of environmental aspects, like energy consumption and air emissions. The article presents a predictive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a heavy metro train that will operate in the urban area of Rome. A predictive analysis on recyclability/recoverability at the end of life has also been performed according to the ISO 22628. The LCA inventory captures the whole vehicle Life-Cycle (LC) subdivided in four stages: Material acquisition, Manufacturing, Use and
End of life. In comparison with existing studies, this work examines a broader range of impacts to human and ecosystems health using primary data supplied by vehicle manufacturers whenever possible to reduce the uncertainty of results. Results show that Use is largely the most influential stage for the majority of the considered impact categories. This fact is due to the energy intensity of Use stage since it accounts for almost the entire amount (98.3%) of electricity consumed during vehicle LC. Material acquisition is the second most influential stage based on resource consumption and emissions during extraction of Iron and Bauxite: vehicle parts that mainly contribute to impacts of Material acquisition are body structure and bogies. The impacts associated with Manufacturing and End of life are low compared to the other stages. The projected recyclability and recoverability rates at the end of life stage are respectively 87.4% and 92.1%. A sensitivity analysis of the LCA results stresses the influence of vehicle occupancy on the electricity consumption during operation and the overall LCIA results. In light of LCA results, major improvement potential is identified in the reduction of electricity consumption during use stage, primarily due to Traction and Heating systems. The key recommendations for future design strategies are the decrease of vehicle mass by the application of lightweight materials for metro construction and the improvement of efficiency of the Heating system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tLife Cycle Assessment of a heavy metro
Francesco Del Pero a, *, Massimo Delogu a, Marco P a Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence, Italy b AnsaldoBreda, Italy journal homepage: wwwain ini a, Davide Bonaffini b le at ScienceDirect er Production evier .com/locate/ jc lepro nerDu JD et al., 2010; Duflou et al., 2009; Luz et al., 2010; Mayyas et al., 2011; Vinodh and Jayakrishna, 2011; Zah et al., 2006) alternatives for personal transportation have been performed to understand how the associated impacts can be reduced. However, less interest has been paid to the transportation by railway. Some studies limit their field of investigation to the railway sector, others make a comparison between railway and different types of transportation emphasising the influence that they have on specific areas. The results for the multi-mode studies, particularly when considering the impact to Global Warming, suggest railways can be a more environmentally preferred mode of transportationwhen compared with other modes such as roadways.
Stodolsky et al. (1998) compared the environmental profile of rail and on-road modes for the transportation of freight. Energy use and emissions were examined taking into account the whole vehicle LC. Using secondary data for energy use and emissions, the
ADPe Abiotic Depletion Potential elements