Grapevine propagation: principles and methods for the production of high-quality grapevine planting materialNew Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science

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Authors
H Waite, M Whitelaw-Weckert, P Torley
Year
2014
DOI
10.1080/01140671.2014.978340
Subject
Agronomy and Crop Science / Horticulture

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Grapevine propagation: principles and methods for the production of highquality grapevine planting material

H Waiteab, M Whitelaw-Weckertac & P Torleyab a National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt

University, Wagga Wagga, Australia b School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt

University, Wagga Wagga, Australia c New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, National

Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga

Wagga, Australia

Published online: 21 Nov 2014.

To cite this article: H Waite, M Whitelaw-Weckert & P Torley (2014): Grapevine propagation: principles and methods for the production of high-quality grapevine planting material, New Zealand

Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, DOI: 10.1080/01140671.2014.978340

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2014.978340

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Grapevine propagation: principles and methods for the production of high-quality grapevine planting material

H Waitea,b*, M Whitelaw-Weckerta,c and P Torleya,b aNational Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia; bSchool of

Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia; cNew South Wales

Department of Primary Industries, National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University,

Wagga Wagga, Australia (Received 27 January 2014; accepted 4 September 2014)

Since the worldwide grapevine planting boom in the 1990s, there have been numerous reports of sporadic young vine failures and early decline of young vineyards. In many cases, the leading causes of these problems have been traced to defective, but often asymptomatic, propagating and planting materials infected with trunk disease pathogens, or with other defects that affect vine establishment, vigour and longevity. Current propagation practices favour cross-contamination by trunk disease pathogens and impose physiological stress that affects the quality of finished vines. This review describes the characteristics of high-quality cuttings and practices that will produce a consistent supply of quality planting material. The barriers to the production of high-quality grapevine propagating and planting material are also discussed.

Keywords: grapevine propagation; grapevine quality standards; hot water treatment; nursery sanitation; trunk diseases

Introduction

In the past 30 years the global wine industry has undergone a transformation. It has changed from an industry characterised by relatively small, traditionally oriented, family-owned enterprises and a

European focus, to a much more cosmopolitan industry dominated by multinational corporations.

As a result there is now a stronger focus on quality assurance and consistency (Aylward 2005). More wine is now produced and consumed in countries that have little or no history of wine production and consumption, and grapes are being grown in some very challenging climates. However, the vine propagation industry has not experienced the same degree of change. It remains largely an industry dominated by small to medium-sized family businesses and cooperatives, and although the progress towards modernisation has enabled nurseries to increase production, the quality of planting material is not yet of a consistently high standard.

Until recently, there have been few comprehensive standards or assessment criteria for grapevine material and apart from choice of variety and rootstock, other important attributes of planting material have not always been taken into account by nurseries and grape growers. Consequently, inferior material has sometimes been planted and there have been numerous reports from around the world of vine failures and underperforming vineyards needing to be replanted within 5–10 years of establishment (Smart et al. 2012). Many of the failed or underperforming vines were found to be infected with trunk disease pathogens, or to have other defects that affect establishment, vigour and longevity (Stamp 2001; Waite et al. 2013a). *Corresponding author. Email: hwaite@csu.edu.au

New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2014.978340 © 2014 The Royal Society of New Zealand