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Tokyo (Reuters) – Because of the worst technical glitch in decades, trading on the Tokyo Stock Exchange was down all Thursday.

The exchange operator attributed this to a problem with its “Arrowhead” trading system, and it was also not possible to switch trading to an emergency system. It was the first time since electronic trading systems were introduced in 1999 that trading had to be suspended for an entire day. The stock exchange operator TSE apologized for the breakdown. A top manager announced that trading would resume on Friday after defective systems were replaced.

“I feel painfully responsible for the turmoil this incident has caused for investors and market participants,” said TSE boss Koichiro Miyahara. The technology group Fujitsu, which supplied the system, has already started investigations. However, the incident raises questions about the reliability of the exchange operator, especially since the new Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga has made digitization a priority. It could dampen Tokyo’s hopes of attracting more banks and funds from Hong Kong. Investors were also critical. “There will be massive increases in trading volume around the US election, and this is raising concerns about the TSE’s ability to deal with an increase in trading orders,” said Hideyuki Ishiguro, strategist at Daiwa Securities.

The strike had consequences beyond Tokyo. The smaller regional exchanges in Nagoya, Fukuoka and Sapporo also had to stop trading because they also had access to the TSE system. Only the derivatives exchange in Osaka remained online. “We have to make sure that such a situation is never repeated,” said government spokesman Katunobu Kato. Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike said a quick fix was needed to restore confidence in the market.

With a volume of around six trillion dollars, the Tokyo stock market ranks third in the world behind New York and Shanghai, according to data from the worldwide association of stock exchange operators. In the past, there have always been technical breakdowns at the TSE. The exchange is also known for its comparatively slow trading. The situation has improved since 2010 when a new trading system was introduced.

The first German chair for East Asian languages ​​was founded in Leipzig nine years before the establishment of the Seminar for Oriental Languages ​​in Berlin (1887), which is considered to be the first forerunner of Japanese Studies in Germany. Among the lectures in the winter semester of 1878/79 was a course entitled “The Beginnings of Japanese Grammar”. Professor Georg von der Gabelentz, who held the chair, usually taught the Chinese language.

Ulrich Goch dates the first lecture on Japanese language and literature at the University of Leipzig to the winter semester 1895/96 in the “PhraseBook through German-speaking Japanologies” from 1990. In fact, at this point in time, Professor August Conrady had been teaching a lecture on Japanese grammar for four years.

After the chair for East Asian Languages ​​remained vacant for seven years after Prof. Gabelentz left for Berlin, Professor August Conrady was appointed as his successor in 1897. On a small scale, he continued the Japan-related courses until 1901, but after a stay in Beijing in 1903/04 he devoted himself almost exclusively to sinological studies. Only in the winter semester of 1911/12 did he hold another course on Japanese grammar.

In 1914, thanks to the efforts of the historian Professor Karl Lamprecht, at the “Royal Institute for Cultural and Universal History” founded in 1909, the seminar for East Asian languages ​​was founded in Leipzig and directed by Conrady. André Wedemeyer, a student of Lamprecht who had concentrated on Japanese history and learned classical Chinese with Conrady, worked in the seminar as his assistant.

In the winter semester (WS) 1924/25, the courses on the Japanese language were resumed by Wedemeyer after a 24-year break. Up until the summer semester of 1932 Wedemeyer held two to four events on the written Japanese language and occasionally on Japanese history.

After August Conrady’s death in 1925, Professor Erich Haenisch succeeded him on October 1st of the same year. He stayed in Leipzig until July 1932 before changing to the chair at Berlin University.
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