Evaporation Characteristics of Karanja Bio-diesel and Its Diesel BlendsEnergy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects


D. Yogendra, V. Raghavan, P. S. Mehta
Fuel Technology / Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment / Energy Engineering and Power Technology / Nuclear Energy and Engineering


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Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and

Environmental Effects

ISSN: 1556-7036 (Print) 1556-7230 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ueso20

Evaporation Characteristics of Karanja Bio-diesel and Its Diesel Blends

D. Yogendra, V. Raghavan & P. S. Mehta

To cite this article: D. Yogendra, V. Raghavan & P. S. Mehta (2015) Evaporation Characteristics of Karanja Bio-diesel and Its Diesel Blends, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and

Environmental Effects, 37:15, 1597-1605, DOI: 10.1080/15567036.2011.629279

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2011.629279

Published online: 11 Jul 2015.

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Evaporation Characteristics of Karanja Bio-diesel and Its Diesel Blends

D. Yogendra,1 V. Raghavan,1 and P. S. Mehta1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai,

Tamil Nadu, India

The evaporation characteristics of karanja biodiesel and its blends with diesel measured in a suspended droplet facility are reported in this article. The results have been compared with the evaporation rates of pure single component hydrocarbon fuels, such as n-decane, n-heptane, and neat fossil diesel. Unlike pure hydrocarbons, the evaporation rate for karanja biodiesel is seen to be linear. The evaporation rate decreases as the biodiesel content in the blend increases and its variation tends to be nonlinear particularly at higher temperatures. The karanja and its blends with diesel have a longer heating phase and droplet lifetime compared to diesel.

Keywords: biodiesel, blended fuel, droplet lifetime, evaporation constant, karanja vegetable oil, suspended droplet, transient evaporation


Owing to the high cost of petroleum products and uncertainty regarding availability in the future, increase in demand of petroleum products, strict emission norms and global warming, and adverse environmental effects from vehicles running on fossil fuels, the alternative fuel research is gaining momentum. Among the various alternative fuels, the biomass-derived fuels are emerging as an attractive choice. Especially, the liquid fuels derived from vegetable oils are being seriously considered (Carraretto et al., 2004). The common liquid bio-fuels from nonedible plant sources are identified to be karanja oil, jatropha oil, neem oil, mahua oil, and rice bran oil. The straight vegetable oils have high viscosity, lower volatility, and lower energy content compared to fossil diesel and hence the processes, such as pyrolysis (thermal cracking) and transesterification, are used to produce their biodiesel counterpart. The use of bio-diesel in compression ignition engines is widely contemplated (Bhattacharya and Reddy, 1994), but their evaporation process has significant influence on the combustion and emission performances. Hence, there is a need for better understanding of evaporation of neat vegetable oil/biodiesel droplets and their blends with diesel. Although there have been several investigations concerning theoretical and experimental aspects of droplet evaporation of pure

Address correspondence to Dr. Vasudevan Raghavan, 206A Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory,

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036, India.

E-mail: raghavan@iitm.ac.in

Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/ueso.

Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 37:1597–1605, 2015

Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

ISSN: 1556-7036 print/1556-7230 online

DOI: 10.1080/15567036.2011.629279 1597

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D ec em be r 2 01 5 liquid fuels, the investigations on multi-component alternative fuel droplets are scanty. This is the primary motivation for this work.

The investigations on fuel properties and spray processes are of significance to evaluate suitability of alternative fuels like biodiesel. Graboski and McCormick (1998) reviewed the status of fat and oil-derived diesel fuels with respect to fuel properties, engine performance, and emissions. Some researchers evaluated the physical properties of biodiesel. For example, Tat and

Gerpen (2000) evaluated the specific gravity of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel, and

Kerschbaum and Rinke (2004) measured the viscosity of biodiesel samples at ambient conditions.

Yuan et al. (2003) presented the methods of predicting key physical properties of biodiesel, such as critical properties; vapor pressure; and latent heat of vaporization, density, surface tension, and liquid viscosity, based on the properties of individual fatty acids present in the fuel. Raheman and

Phadatare (2004) reported the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20 to 80% by volume. Some studies on evaporation of liquid fuels also exist in the literature. Morin et al. (2000) investigated the vaporization of bio-fuel droplets suspended on fibers under convective conditions with varying pressure and temperatures. The time evolution of the droplet diameter during vaporization was observed by an imaging technique. The authors observed that the droplets of vegetable oil methyl esters evaporate like mono-component droplets, however, with a very significant heating phase. Founti et al. (2002) investigated the evaporation of acoustically levitated droplets of single- and multi-component fuels under constant temperature and convective environment.

In the present work, experimental investigation of the evaporation characteristics of neat fuels, such as pure n-decane, pure n-heptane, neat diesel, neat karanja biodiesel, and its blends with diesel in several volumetric proportions in a hot convective environment, is carried out. A single droplet suspension technique is used for the investigation.