International Journal of Hospitality Management 47 (2015) 85–95
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International Journal of Hospitality Management jo u r n al homep age: www.elsev ier .com/ locate / i jhosman
Enhanc g p
The eff ari
SooCheo a School of Hos . State b School of Hos t, Wes a r t i c l
Ethnic food ac
Perceived risk food iliari ve th ies) h ovel f amin ple asing eras c the sc stom perceived risks of trying ethnic foods. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introdu
A growi markets has sumers crav due to the i tural experi
With this i growing eff to attract g (Jang et al., 2 (2012), pop
Japanese, M sidered suc ‘food cultur arrived in th as Korean f market (Jan paign to glo
American o ∗ Correspon
E-mail add 1 Tel.: +1 76 http://dx.doi.o 0278-4319/© ction ng demand for ethnic restaurants and ethnic food been observed in the U.S. (Strom, 2013). Many U.S. cone more variety in their food consumption experiences nfluence of ethnic diversity, globally sourced food, culences, and media exposure (Verbeke and López, 2005). ncreasing global demand for ethnic foods, there are orts to establish marketing strategies with the potential lobal customers toward emerging ethnic food markets 009). According to the National Restaurant Association ular ethnic foods in the U.S. include Chinese, Italian, exican, and Thai cuisines. These ethnic cuisines are concessful in the U.S. market because each has developed a e’ since the 1960s when huge numbers of immigrants e U.S. (Lu and Fine, 1995). However, novel cuisines, such ood, still encounter many challenges entering the U.S. g et al., 2009). Despite the Korean government’s cambalize Korean cuisine, it has yet to become a fixture of r European culture (Korean Cuisine to the World, 2009). ding author. Tel.: +1 765 496 3610; fax: +1 765 494 0327. resses: firstname.lastname@example.org (S. Jang), email@example.com (D. Kim). 5 413 6634.
Although ethnic food restaurants have become an important component of the foodservice industry, the literature has yet to address how ethnic restaurants become successful. This study contributes to the literature by considering U.S. consumers’ food related behaviors. Food-related consumer behaviors are transformed and influenced by various factors that can be categorized as food-internal factors (e.g., food neophobia) and food-external factors (e.g., information and social factors) (Eertmans et al., 2001;
Pliner and Hobden, 1992).
One food internal factor that is specifically related to food choices is food neophobia. Humans’ omnivorous nature explains people’s fear or reluctance to eat novel or unfamiliar foods (Rozin and Vollmecke, 1986). That is, throughout history humans have viewed ingesting novel foods as potentially harmful. Previous research has provided evidence to support that willingness to eat novel foods decreases as the belief that novel foods could be potentially harmful increases. Pliner and Hobden (1992) characterized food-related personality traits as individual differences in terms of avoiding a range of edibles. Food neophobia is more likely to protect an individual from consuming potentially harmful foods, while food neophilia increases the likelihood of trying a wide variety of foods.
However, although ethnic foods are considered potentially harmful to certain food neophobic groups, there is little work identifying the food related personality traits that affect attitudes toward ethnic foods and ethnic restaurants (Tuorila et al., 2001). Further, there rg/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.03.011 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.ing ethnic food acceptance and reducin ects of personality traits, cultural famili ng (Shawn) Janga,∗, DongHee Kimb,1 pitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, Marriott Hall, Room 245, 900 W pitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, Marriott Hall, 900 W. State Stree e i n f o ia and neophilia rity ceptance a b s t r a c t
This study examined whether innate external factors such as cultural fam to try ethnic foods. In order to achie cultural contents (e.g., music or mov whether it increases acceptance of n nic foods and perceived risk, were ex verbal information frames using a sam results empirically suggest that incre lifestyles, music, movies, and soap op ethnic foods. Moreover, the results of serve as a tool not only to increase cuerceived risk: ty, and menu framing
Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA t Lafayette, IN 47907, USA -related personality traits (food neophobia), as well as food ty and menu framing, influence U.S. customers’ reluctance is aim, this study first investigated whether familiarity with elps reduce the perceived risk of ethnic foods and, further, oods. Second, food related behaviors, willingness to try ethed under various menu conditions with different visual and of U.S. consumers with varying levels of food neophobia. The familiarity with Korean culture through exposure to Korean ould alleviate food neophobia as a barrier to accepting novel enario experiments indicate that the menu design format can ers’ willingness to accept ethnic foods, but also to reduce the 86 S. Jang, D. Kim / International Journal of Hospitality Management 47 (2015) 85–95 is little work identifying the factors that contribute to acceptance of unfamiliar foods or reducing the perceived risk of unfamiliar foods. Yet, in order to introduce new foods into the U.S. market successfully, it is critical to reduce the fear of novel foods.
To reduc miliarity, th ethnic food modeled th level of fam ethnic food is an extern foods (Park tural image perceive a tural conten associated m foster inter knowledge cuisines. Th
Another acceptance uncertainty that how i willingness vious studie acceptance on custom et al., 1992 for custom visual infor