Effect of the αs1-casein genotype and its interaction with diet degradability on milk production, milk quality, metabolic and endocrinal response of Girgentana goatsSmall Ruminant Research


Marcella Avondo, Pietro Pennisi, Massimiliano Lanza, Renato Italo Pagano, Bernardo Valenti, Paola Di Gregorio, Anna De Angelis, Daniela Giorgio, Adriana Di Trana
Food Animals / Animal Science and Zoology


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Quantitative determination of αs2- and αs1-casein in goat's milk with different genotypes by capillary electrophoresis

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Alfonso Ciccone, Cristina Motto, Elisabetta Aritzu, Alessandra Piana, Livia Candelise, on behalf of the Group


Small Ruminant Research 123 (2015) 136–141

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Small Ruminant Research jou rn al h om epa ge : w ww.elsev ier .com/ locate /smal l rumres

Effect o nte degrad alit endocrinal response of Girgentana goats

Marcella Avondoa,∗, Pietro Pennisi a, Massimiliano Lanzaa,

Renato It

Anna De a Dipartimento b Scuola di Scie

Potenza, Italy a r t i c

Article history:

Received 13 O

Accepted 28 O

Available onlin




CSN1S1 polym

Diet degradab

Hormones ∗ Correspon

E-mail add http://dx.doi.o 0921-4488/© alo Paganoa, Bernardo Valenti a, Paola Di Gregoriob,

Angelisa, Daniela Giorgiob, Adriana Di Tranab di Scienze delle Produzioni Agrarie e Alimentari (DISPA), University of Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania, Italy nze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed Ambientali (SAFE), University of Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10, 85100 l e i n f o ctober 2014 ctober 2014 e 4 November 2014 orphism ility a b s t r a c t

A study was carried out to evaluate if diets at different starch and protein degradability could influence productive, metabolic and hormonal response of goats at different s1casein genotype. Nineteen Girgentana goats at mid lactation were selected on the basis of their genotype at s1-casein locus: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles and ten goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF). The goats were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two genotypes (AA, FF) and two diets at different degradability (H diet: RDP, 60.5% of crude protein; starch degradability, 78,4%; L diet: RDP, 50.9% of crude protein; starch degradability, 66.8%). The dry matter intake was not affected by s1genotype (respectively AA and FF goats: 2107 and 2086 g/d; P = 0.160), whereas it resulted significantly higher when goats were fed with the L diet (2130 g/d vs 2063 g/d; P < 0.001).

Milk yield was much higher in AA compared to FF goats (1401 g/d vs 1076 g/d; P = 0.03).

As expected, milk protein and casein resulted significantly higher and urea resulted significantly lower in AA goats (protein, 3.72% vs 3.20%; P < 0.001; casein, 3.11% vs 2.56%,

P < 0.001; urea 56.6 mg/dl vs 69.2 mg/dl, P < 0.001) whereas no differences were found, between genotypes, in milk fat and lactose. No diet effect was detected on milk production and composition. The s1 genotype has strongly influenced free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels, which were higher in AA goats (1.64 vs 1.37 ln + 1 pg/ml; P = 0.009). No other differences were evident between genotypes or diets. In conclusion, the hypothesis that diets at different degradability could modify the productive response of goats at different CSN1S1 genotype has not been demonstrated. It has not been clarified the metabolic and endocrinal mechanisms involved in the manifestation of the differences found in relation to the studied polymorphism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ding author. Tel.: +39 095234331. ress: mavondo@unict.it (M. Avondo). 1. Introduction

The milk nitrogen content in goats is strongly affected by the genotype at s1-casein locus (CSN1S1). This highly polymorphic gene (Marletta et al., 2005, 2007) also appears to exert effects on milk fat concentration (Schmidely et al., 2002) and composition (Chilliard et al., 2006; Valenti et al., rg/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.10.015 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.f the s1-casein genotype and its i ability on milk production, milk quraction with diet y, metabolic and

M. Avondo et al. / Small Ruminant Research 123 (2015) 136–141 137 2010), milk yield (Avondo et al., 2009; Pagano et al., 2010a; Bonanno et al., 2013a) and milk clotting properties (Bonanno et al., 2013b, 2009; Delacroix-Buchet et al., 1996).

In addition, significant effects of CSN1S1 genotype have been found on thyroid hormones concentration in blood (Pagano et

Recently between th performanc

Significant crude prote with the en inclusion in it has been (AA goats) s high energy alleles (FF g goats (Bona

The aim on the inte the genoty performanc rate of star a higher mi and Huber, a conseque digestion an tein synthe between 10 intermedia of goats wi the same 65 ate if diets a productive, different s 2. Materials 2.1. Experime

Nineteen G for days of lact weight (35.7 ± casein locus, a ten goats hom selected takin the goats were samples were the CSN1S1, C yses, following

Goats in each goats were us arrangement o at different de (Table 1).

All the an

Ethics Commi ual pens wher consisted of a tum and 400 g preexperimen intake were d experiment la period lasted 2 samples collec libitum. All ing

Table 1

Diets composition and chemical analyses.

High degradability (H)

Low degradability (L) edients e ey bean m ean me ob pulp e gluten min-min lfa pelle ical co matter % e prote % DM in % DM b % CP c % CP er solub ch % DM e lipid % % DM

MJ/kg D ch degra y matte men de men un t energy lculated et al., 2 ample co dividual ual mil ng and samples protein ral carbohydrates (Van Soest et al., 1991), water-soluble carboes (WSC) by a modified anthrone method (Deriaz, 1961), starch enzymic procedure (Megazyme International Ireland Ltd., Bray, Co. w, Ireland). RDP and RUP were calculated from NRC (2001). ilk samples, consisting of proportional volumes of morning and g milk yield, were analyzed for lactose, fat, protein, casein, urea

C, by an automated Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometric analyzer (Combi-foss 6000, Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). eight was measured at the start and at the end of the trial. od samples (8 ml) were taken from all goats at the end of the premental period and at the end of each experimental period by jugular uncture using vacutainer tubes containing lithium heparin (Becickinson and Co.) and immediately placed on ice. Within 1 h of the ng, blood samples were centrifuged at 1400 × g at 4 ◦C for 20 min asma was harvested and stored at −20 ◦C until assayed. A TARGA 2000 (Technology Advanced Random Generation Analyser, Biotecstruments, Roma, Italy) automated analyzer was used to determine e, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, total protein and albumin (Meriardo, Italy) in plasma samples. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) eta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) were analyzed by using respecFA 115 and Ranbut commercial kits (Randox Laboratories, Crumlin, , UK). Insulin (Mercodia 10-1202-01, Uppsala, Sweden), IGF-1 (600; iagnostics, Marburg, Germany), free triiodothyronine (fT3; DiaMe, Milan, Italy) and free thyroxine (fT4, DiaMetra Srl, Milan, Italy) easured in duplicate by ELISA kits. tatistical analysis e-experimental data for milk production were analyzed for genoffect, using a one-way ANOVA. Individual data for intake, milk ction and composition were analyzed using the GLM procedureal., 2010b; Bonanno et al., 2013a). some interactions have been highlighted e characteristics of diet and the different dairy e of goats, associated to this polymorphism. interactions have been evidentiate with the in content of diet (De la Torre et al., 2009) and ergy level associated to different levels of hay the diet (Pagano et al., 2010a). In particular found that goats homozygous for strong alleles howed higher milk production only when fed at level, compared to goats homozygous for weak oats) (Pagano et al., 2010a) or to heterozygous nno et al., 2013a). of the study was to deepen the knowledges raction between the diet characteristics and pe at CSN1S1 locus, in order to optimize the e of goats. It has been reported that a higher ch and protein fermentation was associated to crobial growth in the rumen (Herrera-Saldana 1989; Herrera-Saldana et al., 1990) and, as nce, to higher levels of microbial protein for d a higher aminoacids availability for milk prosis. In a previous study it has been found that, 0%, 65% and 30% of hay in a complete diet, the te level resulted in a better productive response th strong alleles at CSN1S1 locus. Maintaining % level of hay, a trial was conducted to evalut different rumen degradability could influence metabolic and hormonal response of goats at 1-casein genotype. and methods ntal design irgentana goats in their 2nd to 3rd lactation, homogeneous ation (75 ± 10 d), milk production (1.2 ± 0.4 kg/d) and body 6.5 kg), were selected on the basis of their genotype at s1s follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles and ozygous for weak alleles (FF). Moreover all the goats were g into account CSN2 and CSN1S2 genotype. In particular all characterized by strong alleles at the two loci. Goat DNA obtained from hair bulbs. The genotypes of individuals at