Development of a Fiber Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Anionic Surfactants Using Ethyl VioletAnalytical Letters

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Authors
Takuya Okazaki, Kenichiro Imai, Ayesha Sultana, Noriko Hata, Shigeru Taguchi, Hideki Kuramitz
Year
2015
DOI
10.1080/00032719.2015.1022822
Subject
Analytical Chemistry / Spectroscopy / Clinical Biochemistry / Electrochemistry / Biochemistry / Biochemistry, medical

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Development of a Fiber Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Anionic Surfactants Using Ethyl Violet

Takuya Okazakia, Kenichiro Imaia, Ayesha Sultanaa, Noriko Hataa, Shigeru Taguchia & Hideki

Kuramitza a Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and

Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan

Accepted author version posted online: 28 May 2015.

To cite this article: Takuya Okazaki, Kenichiro Imai, Ayesha Sultana, Noriko Hata, Shigeru Taguchi & Hideki Kuramitz (2015):

Development of a Fiber Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Anionic Surfactants Using Ethyl Violet, Analytical Letters, DOI: 10.1080/00032719.2015.1022822

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2015.1022822

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Spectrophotometry

Development of a Fiber Optic Evanescent Wave Sensor for Anionic Surfactants

Using Ethyl Violet

Takuya Okazaki 1 , Kenichiro Imai 1 ,

Ayesha Sultana 1 , Noriko Hata 1 , Shigeru Taguchi 1 ,

Hideki Kuramitz 1 1

Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and

Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan

Address correspondence to Hideki Kuramitz, Department of Environmental Biology and

Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of

Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan E-mail: kuramitz@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp

Received 12 December 2014; revised XX YYY ZZZZ; accepted 18 February 2015.

Abstract

A rapid and simple method for the determination of anionic surfactants based on an evanescent wave fiber optic was developed using ethyl violet. The sensor was prepared by removing the middle of the multimode fiber cladding. The optical signal from ethyl violet decreased with an increase in the sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration. The calibration curve was linear from 4 to 15 milligrams per liter with a limit of detection of 3.3 milligrams per liter. This simple fiber optic sensor requires a low volume of sample and does not employ extraction with organic solvents compared with conventional methods.

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KEYWORDS: anionic surfactants, ethyl violet, evanescent wave fiber optic sensor, sodium dodecyl sulfate, spectrophotometry

INTRODUCTION

Surfactants are widely used in household and industrial products and discharged into the environment posing significant health risks to humans and wildlife. In the 1990s, the worldwide consumption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, which are widely used in the detergent industry, was approximately 2 million tons. Other surfactant use include 86,000 tons of α-alkene sulfonates and 289,000 tons of alkyl sulfates (World Health

Organization 1996; Verge et al. 2001). These compounds may damage the ecosystem and act as endocrine disrupters (Ying 2006). Therefore, it is important to accurately monitor the concentrations of surfactants in environmental water.

Spectrophotometric methods based on liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of anionic surfactant have been widely used. Cationic dyes such as methylene blue and ethyl violet are often used as counterions of anionic surfactants (American Public Health

Association 1992; Japanese Industrial Standards Committee 2013). Ethyl violet has

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Ju ne 20 15 3 advantages compared to methylene blue in terms of high sensitivity, fewer interferences by coexisting ions, and good reproducibility and quantification of trace concentrations of anionic surfactants (Motomizu et al. 1982; Yoshida et al. 2014). However, these methods use organic solvents such as chloroform and toluene that may pose environmental and health concerns. In addition, liquid-liquid extraction complicates the analysis and may be time consuming. Consequently, a simpler and greener method for determining anionic surfactant is desirable. An suitable method using ethyl violet that does not employ liquidliquid extraction was developed by Oshima, Motomizu, and Doi (1992) in which anionic surfactants were determined from the change in absorption of ethyl violet in the presence of surfactants.