Challenges in tracking harmful algal blooms: A synthesis of evidence from Lake ErieJournal of Great Lakes Research

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Authors
Jeff C. Ho, Anna M. Michalak
Year
2015
DOI
10.1016/j.jglr.2015.01.001
Subject
Ecology / Aquatic Science / Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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Text

sJeff C. Ho a,b,⁎, Anna M. Michalak b

Microcystis

Harmful algal blooms

Lake Erie mmer 2014 event caused a mandatory three day tap water ban for Toledo, Ohio. We . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix A. Supplementary data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0

Journal of Great Lakes Research xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

JGLR-00844; No. of pages: 9; 4C:

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Great Lakes Re j ourna l homepage: www.e lsev ie r .coReferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0

Introduction

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems are quickly becoming a global epidemic. Reports of HABs in Lake Taihu in China 2013), Lake Victoria in Africa (e.g., Sitoki et al., 2012), and Lake Nieuwe

Meer in The Netherlands (e.g., Johnk et al., 2008) constitute examples of an alarming trend in freshwater ecosystems worldwide that is only expected to worsen under a changing climate (Paerl and Huisman,(e.g., Qin et al., 2010), Lake Erie in North Ame ⁎ Corresponding author at: Department of Global Ec

Science, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Tel.: + 462 5968.

E-mail address: jeffho@stanford.edu (J.C. Ho). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2015.01.001 0380-1330/© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article as: Ho, J.C., Michalak,

Lakes Res. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0

Implications for future monitoring and research

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Definitions: What is a HAB? . . . . .

Occurrence: Was there a HAB? . . . .

Size: How big was the HAB? . . . . .

Timing: When did the HAB occur?. . .lacking, raising concerns about their use as a basis for addressingmechanistic questions about controlling factors.

This ambiguity is found to be caused by differences in the methods used to track HABs, the specific harm being considered, the linkage to that harm (direct or indirect), the threshold defining harm, and spatiotemporal variability in sampling. Further work is therefore needed to integrate heterogeneous types of observations in order to better leverage existing and future monitoring programs, and to guide modeling efforts toward deeper understanding of HAB causes and consequences. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for Great Lakes Research.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0Ecosystem indicators

Aquatic ecology find that, even for well-studied systems, unambiguous answers to basic questions about HAB occurrence are

Freshwater eutrophication the resurgence of HABs, a su

Keywords: the science in answering thea Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305, USA b Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 19 June 2014

Accepted 29 December 2014

Available online xxxx

Communicated by R. Michael McKay

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are becoming increasingly common in freshwater ecosystems globally, raising complex questions about the factors that influence their initiation and growth. These questions have increasingly been answered through mechanistic and stochastic modeling efforts that rely on historical information about

HABs in a given system for development, validation, and calibration. Therefore, understanding processes that control HABs is predicated on the ability to answer muchmore basic questions about what has actually occurred in a given system, namely questions of HAB occurrence, extent, intensity, and timing. Herewe explore the state of se basic questions; we use Lake Erie as a case study, where nearly two decades afterReview

Challenges in tracking harmful algal bloomrica (e.g., Michalak et al., ology, Carnegie Institution for 1 650 318 8904; fax: +1 650

V. on behalf of International Associa

A.M., Challenges in tracking h /j.jglr.2015.01.001: A synthesis of evidence from Lake Erie search m/locate / jg l r2009). The effects of HABs are well documented: they are associated with acute morbidity and mortality across a range of biota (including humans) (Landsberg, 2002; Van Dolah, 2005), economic impacts through ecological and human health costs (Anderson et al., 2000;

Hoagland et al., 2002) and the need for additional water treatment measures for regions relying on surface water supplies (Hitzfeld et al., tion for Great Lakes Research. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license armful algal blooms: A synthesis of evidence from Lake Erie, J. Great 2 J.C. Ho, A.M. Michalak / Journal of Great Lakes Research xxx (2015) xxx–xxx• What is a HAB? (i.e., How do we identify blooms and whether or not they might be harmful?) • Was there a HAB? (i.e., How do we define their occurrence?) • How big was the HAB? (i.e., What are meaningful quantitative methods for establishing spatial extent?) • When did the HAB occur? (i.e., When did a given HAB start, peak, and decline?)