Assessment of the stability of proanthocyanidins and other phenolic compounds in cranberry syrup after gamma-irradiation treatment and during storageFood Chemistry


C. Rodríguez-Pérez, R. Quirantes-Piné, M. del M. Contreras, J. Uberos, A. Fernández-Gutiérrez, A. Segura-Carretero
Analytical Chemistry / Food Science


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a m . C a Fu cal P a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are oligomeric and polymeric end-products of the flavonoid-synthesis pathway, since they consist of sequences of flavanol monomeric units such as catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, afzelechin, and epiafzelechin, which are connected by C–C linkages (B-type) and sometimes also by C–O–C linkages (A-type), as classified by (He, Pan, y, & Damodaran, and reduction of s, radiatio ood preser

This process is also known as cold-pasteurisation because fo kept near or at ambient temperature during processing (Alo

Bhat, & Karim, 2009). This technique has been introduced alternative to other preservation methods because it does not harm the environment, reduces the amount of weight loss during post-harvest, and leaves no residues on the fruits (Carocho et al., 2012). Currently, low-level irradiation of food and food-products has been approved by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to reduce the incidence of illness associated with food-borne pathogens. ⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +34 958 637083.

E-mail address: (R. Quirantes-Piné).

Food Chemistry 174 (2015) 392–399

Contents lists availab

Food Che lsecomplaints. Today its anticancer properties have also been studied (Neto, 2011). Previous research suggests that some of these activities may be associated with its rich composition in flavonoids such as quercetin and proanthocyanidins (PACs) and its wealth of phenolic acids (Formica, 1995; Iswaldi et al., 2012; Prior & Gu, 2005). compounds (Vadodkar, Suman, Lakshmanaswam 2012), especially in regard to the prevention urinary-tract infections.

To increase the shelf-life of food product well-established non-thermal physical mode for f 0308-8146/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.n is a vation. ods are thman, as an1. Introduction

American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds with antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities (Es-Safi, Guyot, &

Ducrot, 2006). This berry has been traditionally used to treat and prevent urinary-tract infections in women and digestive-tract

Shi, & Duan, 2008). PACs are noteworthy for their antioxidant activity, since their aromatic rings can effectively scavenge free radicals. Besides their antioxidant properties, these key compounds may present some pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilatory properties (Neto, 2011; Reed, 2002). Thus, considerable research has examined the therapeutic applications of theseArticle history:

Received 21 August 2014

Received in revised form 17 October 2014

Accepted 10 November 2014

Available online 18 November 2014






Mass spectrometry

StabilityShelf life of commercial cranberry syrup irradiated with gamma radiation at a rate of 5 kGy and stored for 6 months at 25 C and 60% relative humidity (RH) and under accelerated stability conditions was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupoletime-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to characterise cranberry syrup. Afterwards, these compounds were quantified by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS and 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay. A significant increase in the content of procyanidin B isomer 1 (from 4.4 to 7.0 lg/ml) and procyanidin A2 (from 83 to 93 lg/ml) was observed after irradiation and compared with the nonirradiated syrup. Procyanidin B isomers and prodelphinidin were stable at 25 C during the first month of storage, whereas quercetin and some derivatives remained constant for 3 months of storage at this temperature. In short, after gamma-irradiation in dose of 5 kGy, most compounds were highly stable for a month at 25 C.  2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Assessment of the stability of proanthocy compounds in cranberry syrup after gam and during storage

C. Rodríguez-Pérez a,b, R. Quirantes-Piné b,⇑, M. del M

A. Fernández-Gutiérrez a,b, A. Segura-Carretero a,b aDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avenid bResearch and Development Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), Health Science Technologi cUGC Pediatría, Hospital Clínico San Cecilio Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain journal homepage: www.enidins and other phenolic a-irradiation treatment ontreras a,b, J. Uberos c, entenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain ark, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Edificio BioRegión, 18017 Granada, Spain le at ScienceDirect mistry vier .com/locate / foodchem and pomegranate juices after gamma-irradiation (Alighourchi,

Pothier, Gueiffier, & Enguehard-Gueiffier, 2013). For this reason it d Chis necessary to combine this technique with other more selective ones. In this regard, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful method due to its high resolution, the capacity to separate a wide range of polar compounds by means of polarity differences, as well as its specificity.

Thus, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in the phenolic composition of cranberry syrup after gamma-irradiation, as well as the stability of these compounds during 6 months of storage in the irradiated cranberry syrup under different conditions: 25 C and 60% relative humidity (RH) and under 40 C and 75% RH, the latter for accelerated stability testing. 2. Material and methods 2.1. Chemicals

Standards of proanthocyanidin A2, p-coumaric acid, quercitrin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, myricetin, (+)-catechin, and luteolin were from Extrasynthese (Genay, France). Formic acid and acetonitrile used for preparing mobile phases were from Sigma–Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany) and Lab-Scan (Gliwice, Sowinskiego, Poland), respectively. Ultrapure water with a resistivity value of 18.2 MX was obtained from Milli-Q system (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA).