Assessing and managing scenery of the Caribbean Coast of ColombiaTourism Management


N. Rangel-Buitrago, I.D. Correa, G. Anfuso, A. Ergin, A.T. Williams
Strategy and Management / Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management / Development / Transportation


Rape in marriage

Lee H. Bowker, o̊Dean of the Graduate School and Research

Max born medal and prize

The Institute of Physics


CA. nive mbia 1, A < Coastal scenery achieves great importance in ans of 2 m top 2, 18% C ing litte


Coastal tourism analysed sites depends on the geological setting and the degree of human occupation. Classes 1 and 2 sites are located in natural protected areas in La Guajira and Magdalena departments. Low classification scenic assessment methodology applied to a tropical area in a developing country whose intrinsic climatic characteristics and

World Tourism Organization WTO, 2001). In 2006, global tourism wasworth US$733 billion, employed 8% of the global workforce and estimates were for 1.6 billion international tourists by 2020 (United

Nations World Tourism Organization UNWT, 2008). Travel and

Tourism worldwide, is expected to grow at 4.0% per year over the next ten years and it is one of the largest growth industries in the world (UNWT, 2008). Beaches are considered as a major player in this market (Houston, 2008; Lencek & Bosker, 1998). To benefit from this dynamic, many tourism oriented countries, e.g. in the * Corresponding author. Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de

Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Tel.: þ34956016167; fax: þ34956016195.

E-mail addresses: (N. Rangel-Buitrago), (I.D. Correa), (G. Anfuso), ergin@

Contents lists available at

Tourism Ma journal homepage: www.els

Tourism Management 35 (2013) (A. Ergin), (A.T. Williams).1. Introduction

This paper provides a scenic assessment of 135 sites along the

Colombian Caribbean coast (Fig. 1, Table 1), which used fuzzy logic analysis and parameter weighting matrices in order to overcome subjectivity and quantifying uncertainties (Ergin, Karaesmen,

Micallef, & Williams, 2004). Location and characteristics of all investigated sites are indicated in Table 1 but unfortunately, it was not possible to present all sites in Fig. 1 due to space considerations.

The work deals with the main factors relating to an innovative particular physical context, affect and control some of the natural factors considered in the classification and will result in a major thrust for coastal tourism. The technique opens new perspectives for analysis of the potential for coastal tourism development in natural areas and for scenic quality improvement of current touristdeveloped areas. 1.1. Travel and tourism

This is the world’s biggest industry (Klein, Osleeb, & Viola, 2004;Scenery assessment

Physical and human parameters

Fuzzy logic

Colombia recorded at Classes 3, 4 and 5 corresponds to a progressive decrease of both natural and (especially) human parameters. Concerning coastal management issues, emphasis should be given to the upgrading of human parameters eliminating litter and sewage evidences, vegetation debris and enhancing beach nourishment works.  2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.< Scenic assessment of 135 sites by me < The scenic beauty was categorised fro < 55% of coastal areas in Classes 1 and < Upgrade human parameters eliminat a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 15 December 2011

Accepted 18 May 2012

Keywords:0261-5177/$ e see front matter  2012 Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2012.05.008the Colombian Caribbean littoral. 6 physical and human parameters. (Class 1) to poor scenery (Class 5). lass 3 and 47% Classes 4 and 5. r, sewage evidences, vegetation debris. a b s t r a c t

This study provides the coastal scenery assessment of 135 sites along the Colombian Caribbean littoral by analysing 26 physical and human factors. Sites were categorised into five classes from Class 1, top grade scenery, to Class 5, poor scenery. Fifty five percent of the investigated coastal areas were included in

Classes 1 and 2, 18% belonged to Class 3 and 47% of the sites fall into Classes 4 and 5. Classification ofh i g h l i g h t sAssessing and managing scenery of the

N. Rangel-Buitrago a,b, I.D. Correa b, G. Anfuso a,b,*, aDepartamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, U bÁrea de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad EAFIT, Carrera 49 N7 Sur e 50, Medellin, Colo cDepartment of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 0653 dBuilt Environment, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED, UKAll rights reserved.aribbean Coast of Colombia

Ergin c, A.T. Williams d rsidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain nkara, Turkey

SciVerse ScienceDirect nagement evier .com/locate/ tourman ismN. Rangel-Buitrago et al. / Tour42Mediterranean, utilise proactive growth policies along the coastal strip (Benoit & Comeau, 2005). Highly seasonal tourism (three summer months and concentrated along the coast) is the most important activity in the Mediterranean coastal zone, in which visitors were estimated as some 250 millions (international and domestic) in 2008 and this number will increase substantially, in line with a forecasted 368 million tourists by 2020 (Unep & Unwto, 2008). In detail, in Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Turkey, tourism receipts account for some 5% of the gross domestic product (UNWTO, 2006), these countries accounting for ‘the most significant flow of tourists.. a sun, sea and sand (3S) market’ (Doods & Kelman, 2008, p. 58).

Even in the UK, a ‘non sun, sea and sand market’, more than 40% of all tourism is motivated by coastal visits and brings in £110 billion, providing employment for >1.3 million people (5% of all employed people; Netherlands Development Organisation, SNV, 2009). Travel and tourism in the USA generate an estimated

US$746 billion per annum, providing 10% of the gross domestic product representing the second largest contributing industry (Houston, 1995). The US coastal areas receive annually 180 million recreational visitors, coastal states producing 85% of the national revenue related to tourism (Cicin-Sain & Knecht, 1998; Hughes, 2011). In California, USA, beach visits exceed 567 million/year compared to 286 million to all USA National Parks and in the 1995e1999 period brought annual tax revenues from tourism of more than US$14 billion (King, 1999). Along the Caribbean, tourist