A process designed for the continuous production of starch inclusion complexes on an industrial scaleFood and Bioproducts Processing


Stylianos N. Raphaelides, Georgia Dimitreli, Stylianos Exarhopoulos, Eleni Ilia, Paraskevi Koutsomihali
Biotechnology / Food Science / Biochemistry / Chemical Engineering (all)


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food and bioproducts processing 9 6 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 245–255

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Food and Bioproducts Processing er .com/ locate / fbp

A pro u of sta i scale

Styliano nos

Eleni Ilia

Food Process hessa

Thessalonik a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 25 November 2014

Received in 2015

Accepted 1

Available on


Starch inclu

Starch extru




Starch-fatty rheology a b s t r a c t

A process was designed for the continuous production of starch inclusion complexes using pregelatinized, in a drum drier, maize starch and fatty acids as raw materials. The complexes 1. Int

In recent maltodextr microcapsu tive to oxid unstable fla 2004). The found appl pharmaceu encapsulat the availab achieving th ing of the co starch pres ∗ Correspon

E-mail a http://dx.do 0960-3085/©revised form 11 June

September 2015 line 8 September 2015 sion complexes sion id interactions acid extrudates acid complex structure acid extrudate melt were formed in a twin screw cooker extruder operated at 80 or 100 ◦C and screw speeds of 80, 100, 145 or 204 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of the extrudates were studied and the structural modifications taken place in the starch matrix, during extrusion, were investigated using XRD analysis. The results indicated that the process is quite effective for the production of starch inclusion complexes and could be ideal for the protection of sensitive and unstable bioactive compounds as well as of nutraceuticals against adverse environmental conditions and for their controlled release in the human gastrointestinal tract. © 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. roduction years the use of biomaterials such as gums, ins and chemically modified starches to form les or nanocapsules for the protection of sensiation bioactive compounds and extremely volatile vours has becoming increasingly popular (Gouin, technique used is called encapsulation and it has ications in many industrial sectors such as food, ticals, cosmetics, chemicals and others. However, ion has certain drawbacks such as the high cost and ility of suitable carriers as well as the difficulty in e ideal process conditions to ensure effective coatmpound to be protected. On the other hand, native ents a highly attractive alternative to be used as a ding author. Tel.: +30 2310 791371; fax: +30 2310 791360. ddress: rafael@food.teithe.gr (S.N. Raphaelides). carrier for the protection of sensitive and unstable substances.

It is abundant in nature, fairly cheap to produce, commercially available in huge quantities and fully biodegradable. Moreover, the most important feature of starch, rendering it ideal for encapsulation applications, is amylose, the linear component of starch, which has the unique property among the other biopolymers to physically interact with polar and non-polar compounds such as fatty acids, to form inclusion complexes.

The structure of these complexes is a left handed single helix with a central cavity large enough to accommodate various compounds even bulky ones such as flavours (Le Bail et al., 2005). Moreover, amylose-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inclusion complex was reported to be highly resistant to oxidation and showed potential delivery of CLA to the intestine (Lalush et al., 2005). i.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2015.09.001 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.j ourna l ho me page: www.elsev i cess designed for the continuo rch inclusion complexes on an s N. Raphaelides ∗, Georgia Dimitreli, Stylia , Paraskevi Koutsomihali

Engineering Laboratory, Department of Food Technology, ATEI of T i GR 57400, Greeces production ndustrial

Exarhopoulos, loniki, P.O. Box 141, 246 food and bioproducts processing 9 6 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 245–255

There are several microencapsulation techniques such as spray dryin entrapmen these tech most widel acid inclus complexes of native st sifiers and v

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C thr ed a d fro riabl ce o the phra equi sam sing zatio xed wer lapse er ug, freeze drying, air suspension coating, liposome t, extrusion and others (Kunz et al., 2003). Among niques extrusion cooking is probably one of the y used for the preparation and study of starch–fatty ion complexes. The formation of amylose–lipid during extrusion cooking, in a twin screw extruder, arch with added fatty acids, monoglycerides, emularious fats was investigated by Mercier et al. (1980), d Mercier (1983) and Raphaelides et al. (2010). On and, single screw extruders were also employed native starch–lipid extrudates and to study their mical characteristics (Stäger, 1988; Bhatnagar and 4; Willett et al., 1995; Bhatnagar and Hanna, 1997). ve effective complexation between starch and fatty the extruder’s barrel it requires both substances ly available for interaction. If native starch is used firstly to be completely gelatinized so the amyt inside the starch granules to be released from the d to become available to interact with the fatty ules. That means for the very short residence time material (starch) inside the extruder, which is the xtrusion cooking, the temperature inside the barbe higher than 120 ◦C (Raphaelides et al., 2010). se of pregelatinized normal maize starch as a raw cilitates the interaction of amylose with the fatty g extrusion, since amylose is already freed from the ules which were totally disrupted during the drum ess employed for the production of pregelatinized eover, pregelatinized starch is amorphous as it will elow in Section 3 which means amylose is readily interact with the fatty acid molecules which are in monomers as anions. Thus, it is possible to employ temperatures below 100 ◦C for extrusion cooking ieve amylose–fatty acid complex formation yields ctory level. This is quite beneficial in the case of sensitive to thermal degradation guest molecules plexes with amylose. , the use of pregelatinized maize starch as a ial in combination with fatty acids and glycerol duction of extrusion products to be utilized as iodegradable packaging materials was explored s et al., 2012). The results indicated that starch omplexes with fatty acids were effectively formed tures as low as 80 ◦C and the method could be used duction of extrudates with tailor made functional n the results mentioned above, the aim of the rk was to employ extrusion cooking as the main ion for the continuous production of starch–fatty ion complexes using as a raw material pregelaize starch and to investigate the physicochemical tics of the extrudates so that these systems to be potential carriers of bioactive compounds. terials and methods terials ize starch was purchased from Nestle Hellas, apparent amylose and the total amylose contents ch were 21.5 ± 0.6% and 26.0 ± 0.3%, respectively, using the method of Morrison and Laignelet